Biography of Pope John Paul II Biografi Pope John Paul II

Biografi Pope John Paul II
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This article contains expanded biographical information about Pope John Paul II . Artikel ini berisi informasi tentang biografis diperluas Pope John Paul II.
Pope John Paul II reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years. Pope John Paul II reigned sebagai paus dari Gereja Katolik Roma dan berdaulat dari Kota Vatikan selama hampir 27 tahun. The first non-Italian to serve in office since the Dutch-German Pope Adrian VI died in 1523, John Paul II’s reign was the third-longest in the history of the Papacy. Pertama non-Italia untuk melayani di kantor-sejak Belanda Jerman Pope Adrian VI meninggal di 1523, Yohanes Paulus II dari pemerintahannya adalah ketiga-lama di dalam sejarah dari kepausan. Although John Paul II’s reign was marked by a continuing decline of Catholicism in the developed countries of the West, at the same time there was an expansion of the church’s role in the Third World and Communist East Europe. Walaupun Yohanes Paulus II dari pemerintahannya telah ditandai oleh penurunan terus Katolik di negara-negara maju dari Barat, pada saat yang sama ada perluasan dari peran gereja di Dunia Ketiga dan Komunis Eropa Timur. John Paul’s election to the papacy is credited by many with fomenting the changes in eastern Europe that eventually led to the downfall of the communist states and the emergence of democratic regimes. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] John Paul’s pemilihan kepada kepausan yang dikreditkan oleh banyak fomenting dengan perubahan di kawasan timur Eropa yang akhirnya telah membawa kepada kehancuran dari negara-negara komunis dan munculnya rezim demokratis. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Contents Isi [hide]
1 Early life 1 Awal kehidupan
2 The young priest 2 imam muda
3 Bishop and Cardinal 3 Kardinal dan Uskup
4 A Pope from Poland 4 A Paus dari Polandia
5 Assassination attempts 5 upaya pembunuhan
6 Health 6 Kesehatan
7 Death 7 Kematian
8 World reactions 8 Dunia reaksi
8.1 “John Paul the Great” 8,1 “John Paul Great”
8.2 Funeral 8,2 Funeral
9 References 9 Referensi

[ edit ] Early life [Sunting] Awal kehidupan
Main article: Early life of Pope John Paul II Artikel utama: awal kehidupan Pope John Paul II

[ edit ] The young priest [Sunting] imam muda

Karol Wojtyła as a priest in Niegowić, Poland, 1948 Karol Wojtyła sebagai imam di Niegowić, Polandia, 1948 Karol Wojtyła was ordained a priest on 1 November 1946 , age 26, by the Archbishop of Kraków , Adam Stefan Sapieha . Karol Wojtyła telah diurapi seorang imam pada 1 November 1946, umur 26, oleh Archbishop of Krakow, Adam Stefan Sapieha. The following day he celebrated his first Mass at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] He then travelled to Rome to begin doctoral studies in the Pontifical Athenaeum of St. Thomas Aquinas , commonly known as the Angelicum . Hari berikutnya ia dirayakan yang pertama Massa di Wawel Cathedral di Krakow. [5] [6] Ia kemudian pergi ke Roma untuk memulai doktoral di Athenaeum uskup dari Santo Thomas Aquinas, yang umum dikenal sebagai Angelicum. There he became well versed in theology and politics. Ia juga menjadi berpengalaman dalam teologi dan politik. He studied writings of pope Gregory I , the teachings of Saint John of the Cross , the phenomenology of Max Scheler . Dia belajar dari tulisan-tulisan paus Gregory I, ajaran Santo Yohanes Salib, yang Fenomenologi dari Max Scheler. He also studied Yves Congar , an important theoretician of ecumenism . Dia juga belajar Yves Congar, yang penting dari teoretisi ecumenism. He lived for two years in Rome in the Belgian College . Dia tinggal selama dua tahun di Roma di Belgia College. The college was small with twenty-two resident student-priests and seminarians, among them five Americans. Sekolah yang tadinya kecil dengan penduduk dua puluh dua mahasiswa-imam dan seminarians antara lima orang Amerika. In this polyglot environment, Wojtyła could improve his French and practice his German, while he began to study Italian and English. Poliglot dalam lingkungan ini, ia dapat meningkatkan Wojtyła Perancis dan Jerman itu praktek, sementara ia mulai belajar ke Italia dan Inggris. In his doctoral thesis, Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce ( The Doctrine of Faith According to Saint John of the Cross ), Wojtyła emphasized the personal nature of the human encounter with God. Di doktor, Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem yang Cruce (Doktrin Iman Menurut Saint John Salib), Wojtyła menekankan sifat pribadi manusia menghadapi dengan Allah. Even though his doctoral work was unanimously approved in June 1948, he was denied the degree because he could not afford to print the text of his dissertation (an Angelicum rule). Walaupun ia bekerja doktoral bulat telah disetujui pada bulan Juni 1948, ia menyangkal gelar karena ia tidak mampu untuk mencetak teks nya disertasi (Angelicum sebuah aturan). On 16 December of that year, a revised text of his dissertation was approved by the theological faculty of Jagiellonian University in Kraków , and Wojtyła was finally awarded the degree. [ 6 ] Pada tanggal 16 Desember tahun itu, yang direvisi teks nya disertasi telah disetujui oleh fakultas teologi dari Universitas Jagiellonian di Krakow, dan akhirnya Wojtyła telah diberikan derajat. [6]

He returned to Poland in the summer of 1948, and his first pastoral assignment was to the village of Niegowić , fifteen miles from Kraków. Ia kembali ke Polandia pada musim panas 1948, dan pertama kehidupan adalah tugas ke desa Niegowić, lima belas mil dari Krakow. Arriving at Niegowić during harvest time, his first action was to kneel down and kiss the ground. Setibanya di Niegowić selama waktu panen, maka tindakan pertama adalah untuk bersujud dan mencium tanah. This gesture would become one of his ‘trademarks’ during his Papacy, but it was not his own, since he acknowledged that he had adopted it from a 19th-century French saint, Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney the ‘Curé d’Ars’ . [ 7 ] Sikap ini akan menjadi salah seorang ‘merek dagang’ selama kepausan, tetapi ia tidak sendiri, sejak dia mengakui bahwa dia telah diadopsi dari satu abad ke-19. Perancis saint, Jean Baptiste Marie Vianney yang ‘Cure d’Ars’. [ 7]

Karol Wojtyła in Saint Florian ‘s parish in Kraków, 1949 Karol Wojtyła di Saint Florian ‘s paroki di Krakow, 1949

Wujek (uncle) Karol on kayak trip Wujek (paman) Karol kayak di perjalanan In March 1949, he was transferred to Saint Florian ‘s parish in Kraków. Pada Maret 1949, ia dipindahkan ke Saint Florian ‘s paroki di Krakow. He taught ethics at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and subsequently at the Catholic University of Lublin . Dia mengajar etika di Universitas Jagiellonian di Krakow dan kemudian di Universitas Katolik Lublin. Wojtyła gathered a group of fewer than twenty young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka , the “little family”, who met for prayer, philosophical discussion, and helping the blind and sick. Wojtyła mengumpulkan sekelompok kurang dari dua puluh anak-anak muda, yang mulai menyebut diri Rodzinka, maka “keluarga kecil”, yang bertemu untuk berdoa, diskusi filosofis, dan membantu orang buta dan sakit. Rodzinka continued to grow. Rodzinka terus tumbuh. Wojtyła’s young friends began to call him Wujek (Uncle) to avoid outsiders from guessing he was a priest on outside trips. [ 8 ] As the Wojtyła’s circle grew, and their bond deepened, several weddings occurred in the group. Wojtyła muda dari teman-teman mulai memanggil dia Wujek (Uncle) untuk menghindari dari luar guessing dia adalah seorang imam di luar perjalanan. [8] Sebagai Wojtyła dari lingkaran tumbuh, dan obligasi deepened, pernikahan terjadi dalam beberapa grup. Eventually there were some 200 people in his circle, which came to be called Środowisko , meaning roughly “milieu”. Akhirnya ada beberapa 200 orang dalam lingkaran, yang datang untuk dipanggil Środowisko, yang berarti kira-kira “suasana”. Wojtyła and his group went on both skiing and kayaking trips annually. Wojtyła dan kelompok itu pada kedua ski dan kayak perjalanan per tahun. On the annual kayaking trip, Wojtyła used to have a two-man kayak and others would join him for conversation or spiritual direction. Mass was celebrated using an overturned kayak as an altar, and two paddles as a cross. Pada tahunan kayak perjalanan, Wojtyła digunakan untuk dua orang kayak dan orang lain akan bergabung untuk percakapan atau rohani arah. Massal telah dirayakan menggunakan overturned kayak sebagai mezbah, dan dua paddles sebagai salib. Once, in 1955, the kayakers took part in an international competition through a gorge on the Dunajec River. Wujek’ s kayak was punctured and sank at the finish line. Sekali, pada tahun 1955, yang kayakers ikut ambil bagian dalam sebuah kompetisi internasional melalui gorge pada Dunajec Sungai. Wujek ‘s kayak telah tertusuk dan sank di garis batas. Fr Wojtyła wrote a series of articles in Kraków’s Catholic newspaper Tygodnik Powszechny (” Universal Weekly “) dealing with contemporary church issues. Fr Wojtyła menulis serangkaian artikel di Krakow Katolik dari koran Tygodnik Powszechny ( “Universal Mingguan”) berhadapan dengan isu-isu kontemporer gereja.

Karol Wojtyła’s literary work blossomed in his first dozen years as a priest. [ 6 ] war , life under communism , and his pastoral responsibilities all fed his poems and plays . Karol Wojtyła dari gubahan berhasil dalam belasan tahun pertama sebagai seorang imam. [6] perang, hidup di bawah komunisme, kehidupan dan tanggung jawab semua makan nya puisi dan bermain. These were published under two pseudonyms-Andrzej Jawień, and Stanisław Andrzej Gruda. Ini telah diterbitkan di bawah dua pseudonyms-Andrzej Jawień, dan Stanislaw Andrzej Gruda. He used these pseudonyms firstly to distinguish his literary from his religious writings, which were published under his own name, and also so that his literary work would be considered on their own merits rather than as clerical curiosities. Dia pseudonyms pertama ini digunakan untuk membedakan nya sastra dari tulisan-tulisan keagamaan, yang telah diterbitkan di bawah nama sendiri, dan juga agar ia gubahan akan dianggap mereka sendiri daripada ciri sebagai juru tulis curiosities.

He earned a second doctorate, evaluating the feasibility of a Catholic ethic based on the ethical system of phenomenologist Max Scheler ( An Evaluation of the Possibility of Constructing a Christian Ethics on the Basis of the System of Max Scheler ), in 1954. Dia yang kedua doktor, mengevaluasi kelayakan yang Katolik etika berdasarkan etika sistem phenomenologist Maks Scheler (Sebuah Evaluasi dari Kesempatan dari Membangun Etika Kristen di Dasar dari Sistem Scheler Maks), pada 1954. As was the case with the first degree, he was not granted the degree upon earning it, as the communist authorities forbade the faculty at the Jagiellonian University from granting the degree. Sebagaimana juga halnya dengan tingkat pertama, dia tidak diberikan setelah mendapatkan gelar itu, sebagai penguasa komunis melarang fakultas di Universitas Jagiellonian dari pemberi derajat. In conjunction with his habilitation at the Catholic University of Lublin , he finally obtained the doctorate of philosophy in 1957 from that institution, where he had assumed the Chair of Ethics in 1956. [ 6 ] Dalam hubungannya dengan habilitation di Universitas Katolik Lublin, akhirnya dia mendapat gelar doktor dari filosofi bahwa di tahun 1957 dari lembaga, di mana dia yang diasumsikan Ketua Kode Etik pada tahun 1956. [6]

[ edit ] Bishop and Cardinal [Sunting] Kardinal dan Uskup
On 5 August 1958 , while on a two-week Środowisko kayaking trip on the river Lyne in north-eastern Poland, Karol Wojtyła received a letter ordering him to report immediately to the primate, Cardinal Wyszynski, in Warsaw. Pada tanggal 5 Agustus 1958, sementara di dua minggu Środowisko kayak perjalanan di sungai Lyne di utara-timur Polandia, Karol Wojtyła menerima surat dia memesan segera melaporkan kepada uskup agung, Cardinal Wyszynski, di Warsawa. When he arrived at the primate’s office, the cardinal informed him that he had been nominated as an auxiliary bishop to Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak , apostolic administrator of the Archdiocese of Kraków, because the archdiocese had become a sede vacante with the death of Cardinal Sapieha. Ketika ia tiba di kantor uskup besar, yang cerah itu memberitahunya bahawa dia telah dicalonkan sebagai penolong uskup ke Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak, kerasulan administrator dari Archdiocese dari Krakow, karena telah archdiocese menjadi sede vacante dengan kematian Cardinal Sapieha. Wojtyła accepted the nomination and went straight to the Ursuline convent, where he knocked on the door and asked if he could come in to pray. Wojtyła menerima pencalonan dan pergi langsung ke Ursuline biara, di mana dia knocked di pintu dan ditanya apakah ia dapat datang untuk berdoa. Wojtyła amazed the nuns by remaining prostrate on the floor for some time in front of the tabernacle . Wojtyła kagum oleh biarawati yang tersisa bersujud di lantai untuk beberapa waktu di depan kemah. Pope John Paul II recounts in his book Rise, Let us be on our Way that as he entered a room full of priests, following news of his appointment as auxiliary Bishop, Archbishop Baziak had called out “Habemus papam” (“We have a Pope”). Pope John Paul II dalam bukunya menceritakan Naik, Mari kita berada pada jalan yang kami sebagai dia memasuki kamar penuh dengan imam, berikut berita tentang janji-Nya sebagai penolong Bishop, Archbishop Baziak telah memanggil “Habemus papam” ( “Kita mempunyai Paus “). He suggests that these words may be seen as prophetic in the light of subsequent events. Dia menunjukkan bahwa kata-kata ini dapat dilihat sebagai nubuatan dalam terang setelah acara. And so Karol Wojtyła found himself, at thirty-eight, the youngest bishop in Poland. Dan sebagainya Karol Wojtyła menilainya sendiri, di tiga puluh delapan, yang bungsu uskup di Polandia. He was consecrated a bishop by Archbishop Baziak on the feast of St. Dia adalah seorang uskup suci oleh Archbishop Baziak pada hari raya dari Santo Wenceslaus , 28 September 1958 in Wawel Cathedral in Kraków. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Wenceslaus, 28 September 1958 di Wawel Cathedral di Krakow. [9] [10] [11]

Bishop Wojtyła began an annual custom, in 1959, of celebrating Christmas midnight Mass in an open field [ 12 ] in Nowa Huta , a new industrial town built by the communists not far from Kraków and the first town in Polish history deliberately built without a church. Uskup Wojtyła mulai tahunan adat, tahun 1959, dari tengah malam merayakan Natal massal di lapangan terbuka [12] dalam Nowa Huta, kota industri yang baru dibangun oleh komunis yang tidak jauh dari Krakow dan kota pertama dalam sejarah Polandia sengaja dibangun tanpa sebuah gereja . (The measured but persistent pressure by the Catholics would eventually succeed, and in 1977 a church was built in Nowa Huta.) (Yang diukur, tetapi tetap tekanan oleh Katolik akhirnya akan berhasil, dan pada 1977 telah membangun sebuah gereja di Nowa Huta.)

Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July Karol Wojtyła was elected as Vicar Capitular , or temporary administrator, of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop could be appointed. Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak meninggal pada bulan Juni 1962 dan 16 Juli Karol Wojtyła terpilih sebagai wakil Capitular, sementara atau administrator dari Archdiocese sampai Archbishop yang dapat ditunjuk. On 5 October 1962 , Bishop Karol Wojtyła departed for Rome to take part in the Second Vatican Council . Pada tanggal 5 Oktober 1962, Uskup Karol Wojtyła pergi ke Roma untuk mengambil bagian dalam Dewan Vatikan Kedua. Being young and having relatively low position in the hierarchy, Wojtyła sat next to the door of St. Peter’s basilica. Muda yang relatif rendah dan memiliki posisi dalam hirarki, Wojtyła Sabtu samping pintu St Peter’s Basilica. Prior to the council, Bishop Wojtyła had sent an essay to the commissioners preparing for the Council suggesting that the world wanted to know what the church had to say about the human person and the human condition. Sebelum sidang, Uskup Wojtyła telah dikirim ke sebuah karangan komisaris mempersiapkan Dewan menyatakan bahwa dunia ingin tahu apa yang gereja telah mengatakan tentang manusia dan kondisi manusia. What was the Church’s answer to modernity’s widespread “despair about any and all human existence?” Apa yang terbaik dari Jemaat ke modernitas dari luas “asa tentang keberadaan dan semua manusia?”

He made contributions to two of the most historic and influential products of the council, the Decree on Religious Freedom (in Latin, Dignitatis Humanae ) and the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World ( Gaudium et Spes ). [ 6 ] Dia membuat kontribusi ke dua yang paling bersejarah dan berpengaruh produk dari dewan, SK di Agama Kebebasan (dalam bahasa Latin, Dignitatis Humanae) dan Konstitusi Pastoral tentang Gereja di Dunia Modern (Gaudium et Spes). [6]

On 30 December 1963 , Pope Paul VI appointed him Archbishop of Kraków. [ 11 ] Pada tanggal 30 Desember 1963, Pope Paul VI ditunjuk dia Archbishop of Krakow. [11]

In 1960, Wojtyła had published the influential book Love and Responsibility, a defense of the traditional Church teachings on sex and marriage from a new philosophical standpoint. Pada tahun 1960, Wojtyła telah menerbitkan buku Love berpengaruh dan Tanggungjawab, sebuah pembelaan dari ajaran tradisional Gereja tentang seks dan perkawinan baru dari sudut filosofis. In 1967, he was instrumental in formulating the encyclical Humanae Vitae which deals with those same issues and forbids abortion and artificial birth control. [ 13 ] [ 6 ] Pada tahun 1967, dia memainkan peranan dalam merumuskan surat ensiklik Humanae Vitae yang berkaitan dengan isu-isu yang sama dan melarang aborsi dan buatan kelahiran. [13] [6]

In 1967 Pope Paul VI elevated him to cardinal . [ 11 ] Pada tahun 1967 Pope Paul VI ditinggikan kepada kardinal. [11]

[ edit ] A Pope from Poland [Sunting] J Paus dari Polandia
Main article: Papal conclave, October 1978 Artikel utama: paus sidang, Oktober 1978

Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II In August 1978, following Paul’s death, Cardinal Wojtyła voted in the Papal Conclave that elected Albino Luciani, the Cardinal Patriarch of Venice , as Pope John Paul I . At sixty-five, Luciani was a young man by Papal standards and Wojtyła, then fifty-eight, could have expected to participate in another Papal conclave before reaching the age of eighty (the upper age limit for cardinal electors). Pada bulan Agustus 1978, setelah kematian Paulus, Kardinal Wojtyła suaranya dalam sidang paus yang dipilih Albino Luciani, Kardinal dengan kepala keluarga yang Venesia, sebagai Pope John Paul I. Pada enam puluh lima, Luciani adalah seorang pemuda oleh paus Wojtyła dan standar, maka lima puluh -delapan, dapat diharapkan untuk berpartisipasi dalam sidang paus lain sebelum mencapai usia delapan puluh (di atas batas usia untuk cardinal electors). However, he could hardly have expected that his second conclave would come so soon, for on 28 September 1978 , after only 33 days as Pope, John Paul I was discovered dead in the papal apartments. Namun, hampir tidak ada yang dapat diharapkan bahwa kedua sidang itu akan datang segera, sebab pada 28 September 1978, setelah hanya 33 hari sebagai Paus, John Paul I yang ditemukan mati di apartemen paus. In October 1978 Wojtyła returned to Vatican City to participate in the second conclave in less than two months . Pada Oktober 1978 Wojtyła kembali ke Kota Vatikan untuk berpartisipasi dalam sidang kedua dalam waktu kurang dari dua bulan. Voting in the second conclave was divided between two particularly strong candidates: Giuseppe Siri , the Archbishop of Genoa , and Giovanni Benelli , the Archbishop of Florence and a close associate of Pope John Paul I. In early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of victory. Voting dalam sidang kedua dibagi di antara dua kandidat kuat khususnya: Giuseppe Siri, the Archbishop dari Genoa, dan Giovanni Benelli, the Archbishop of Florence dan sekutu dekat dari Pope John Paul I. Pada awal ballots, Benelli datang dari dalam sembilan suara kemenangan . However, Wojtyła secured election as a compromise candidate, in part through the support of the Cardinal of Vienna Franz König and others who had previously supported Giuseppe Siri. [ 14 ] [ 15 ] [ 11 ] Namun, Wojtyła aman pemilu sebagai calon kompromi, sebagian melalui dukungan dari Cardinal dari Wina Franz König dan lain-lain yang sebelumnya telah didukung Giuseppe Siri. [14] [15] [11]

The next day he celebrated Mass together with the College of Cardinals in the Sistine Chapel . Pada hari berikutnya ia dirayakan massal bersama-sama dengan College of Cardinals di Sistine Chapel. After the mass, he delivered his first Urbi et Orbi (a traditional blessing) message, broadcast worldwide via radio. Setelah massa, yang pertama ia menyampaikan Urbi et Orbi (berkat tradisional) pesan, disiarkan melalui radio di seluruh dunia.

Like his immediate predecessor, Pope John Paul II dispensed with the traditional Papal coronation and instead received ecclesiastical investiture with the simplified Papal inauguration on 22 October 1978. Seperti itu segera pendahulu, Pope John Paul II dispensed tradisional dengan paus sukses dan diterima, bukan gerejawi pentahbisan dengan sederhana paus inaugurasi pada tanggal 22 Oktober 1978. During his inauguration, when the cardinals were to kneel before him to take their vows and kiss his ring, he stood up as the Polish prelate Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński knelt down, stopped him from kissing the ring, and hugged him [ 16 ] . Selama pelantikan, ketika Cardinals adalah untuk berlutut sebelum dia untuk mengambil nazar mereka dan kiss his ring, ia berdiri sebagai pendeta Polandia Stefan Cardinal Wyszyński berlutut, dia berhenti dari kissing cincin, dan dia hugged [16].

As Bishop of Rome he took possession of his Cathedral Church , the Basilica of St. John Lateran , on 12 November 1978. Sebagai Uskup Roma ia mengambil milik orang Cathedral Church, di Basilica of St John Lateran, pada 12 November 1978.

The election of a cardinal from a communist country is similar to the plot of the book (1963) and film (1968) The Shoes of the Fisherman . [ 17 ] Pemilihan yang kardinal dari negara komunis mirip dengan plot dari buku (1963) dan film (1968) The Shoes of the Fisherman. [17]

[ edit ] Assassination attempts [Sunting] upaya pembunuhan
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On 13 May 1981 , John Paul II was shot and nearly killed by Mehmet Ali Ağca , a Turkish gunman, as he entered Saint Peter’s Square to address an audience. Pada tanggal 13 Mei 1981, Yohanes Paulus II telah menembak dan hampir dibunuh oleh Mehmet Ali Ağca, seorang Turki bersenjata api, karena dia memasukkan Saint Peter’s Square ke alamat pemirsa. He was rushed to the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic , where he underwent emergency surgery and extensive blood transfusion . Dia rushed ke Poliklinik Agostino Gemelli University, dimana ia mengalami darurat operasi ekstensif dan transfusi darah. Ağca was eventually sentenced to life imprisonment . Ağca akhirnya adalah untuk dihukum penjara seumur hidup. In his will , the Pope described his survival as a “miracle” and believed the Virgin Mary intervened and prevented his death. Menurut dia akan, yang dijelaskan Paus itu hidup sebagai “keajaiban” dan percaya dengan campur tangan dan Perawan Maria dicegah kematiannya.

Who commissioned the murder attempt remains controversial. Yang bertugas pembunuhan mencoba tetap kontroversial. In late March 2005 documents originating from the former Soviet states seemed to indicate that the KGB was responsible for setting up the attack, [ 18 ] although this is disputed. Pada akhir Maret 2005 dokumen yang berasal dari bekas negara Uni Soviet tampaknya menunjukkan bahwa KGB bertanggung jawab untuk menyiapkan serangan, [18] meskipun ini adalah sengketa. Speculations about the possible motives of the alleged Soviet conspiracy abound. Spekulasi mengenai kemungkinan motif dari tuduhan konspirasi abound Soviet. Perhaps the Soviets were afraid of the effect of the Polish pope on the stability of its Eastern European Soviet satellites, particularly Poland. Mungkin takut Soviets dari efek dari Polandia paus pada stabilitas dari satelit Soviet Eropa Timur, terutama Polandia. Other speculation has accused factions in the Vatican, especially the so-called “freemason” faction, opposed to Wojtyła and Opus Dei , of which Cardinal Casaroli was a leading figure. Spekulasi terdakwa lainnya memiliki golongan di Vatikan, khususnya yang disebut “freemason” fraksi, dan bertentangan dengan Wojtyła Opus Dei, yang Casaroli Cardinal adalah tokoh terkemuka.

Ali Ağca himself remains reticent to disclose the truth about the origins of his assassination attempt, although he has often hinted that he received some help from inside the Vatican. Ali Ağca sendiri masih segan untuk mengungkapkan kebenaran mengenai asal usul upaya pembunuhan itu, walaupun dia sering hinted bahwa dia menerima bantuan dari beberapa di Vatikan. Finally, whoever the commissioner was, it has been suggested that Ağca, an excellent marksman, would have killed the Pope if he had intended to do so, and that his mission was to scare the Pope rather than to kill him. Akhirnya, siapapun yang telah komisaris, ia telah mengemukakan bahwa Ağca, ahli yang sangat baik, akan ada yang membunuh Paus jika ia bermaksud untuk melakukannya, dan bahwa misi adalah ketakutan yang Paus daripada membunuhnya. However, no definitive evidence of these things has yet come to light. Namun, tidak ada bukti yang pasti hal-hal ini belum ketahuan.

In November 1982 , in Rome , Serghiei Ivanov Antonov, an officer of the Bulgarian airline Balkan air was arrested as the “Bulgarian plot” was investigated. Pada bulan November 1982, di Roma, Serghiei Ivanov Antonov, seorang pegawai maskapai penerbangan Bulgaria Balkan udara telah ditangkap sebagai “Bulgaria plot” telah diinvestigasi. He and two other Bulgarian agents were later acquitted by an Italian Criminal court (1986 and 1987) for lack of evidence. Dia dan dua lainnya Bulgaria agen yang kemudian acquitted oleh pengadilan Kriminal Italia (1986 dan 1987) karena kekurangan bukti.

Two days after the Christmas of 1983, John Paul visited the prison where his would-be assassin was being held. Dua hari setelah Natal di tahun 1983, John Paul mengunjungi penjara di mana ia akan menjadi pembunuh telah dilaksanakan. The two spoke privately for some time. Kedua berbicara empat mata untuk beberapa waktu. John Paul II said of the meeting, “What we talked about will have to remain a secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned and who has my complete trust.” John Paul II kata rapat, “Apakah kita akan berbicara tentang harus tetap menjadi rahasia antara dia dan saya. Saya berbicara kepadanya sebagai seorang saudara yang saya minta dimaafkan dan yang telah selesai saya percaya.”

Another assassination attempt took place on 12 May 1982 , in Fatima , Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet , but was stopped by security guards. Lain upaya pembunuhan terjadi pada 12 Mei 1982, di Fatima, Portugal ketika seorang mencoba untuk menikam John Paul II dengan bayonet, tetapi dihentikan oleh penjaga keamanan. The assailant, an ultraconservative Spanish priest named Juan María Fernández y Krohn , reportedly opposed the reforms of the Second Vatican Council and called the pope an “agent of Moscow.” Yang pemerkosa, seorang imam ultraconservative Spanyol bernama Juan María Fernández y Krohn, dilaporkan bertentangan dengan reformasi yang Kedua Vatikan Council dan paus yang disebut “agen Moskow.” He served a six-year sentence that was followed by his expulsion from Portugal. Ia menjabat selama enam tahun-kalimat yang diikuti dengan pengusiran dari Portugal.

The Pope and some Catholics believe that the assumption of the papacy by Karol Wojtyła was predicted decades earlier by Padre Pio . The Pope Katolik dan beberapa percaya bahwa asumsi dari kepausan oleh Karol Wojtyła dekade telah diprediksikan sebelumnya oleh Padre Pio. The same Capuchin friar also predicted that Wojtyła’s reign would be brief and end bloodily, a prophecy that the latter’s shooting almost vindicated. Yang sama rahib Capuchin juga memperkirakan bahwa Wojtyła dari pemerintahannya akan singkat dan berakhir bloodily, sebuah nubuatan bahwa kedua dari bidikan hampir vindicated. The Vatican and the Pope believed that the assassination attempt was also predicted in the third secret of the Three Secrets of Fatima . [ 19 ] Di Vatikan dan Paus percaya bahwa upaya pembunuhan itu juga diduga di ketiga rahasia dari Tiga Secrets of Fatima. [19]

[ edit ] Health [Sunting] Kesehatan
As the youngest pope elected since Pope Pius IX in 1846, John Paul II entered the papacy as a healthy, relatively young man who hiked, swam and went skiing. Sebagai bungsu paus dipilih sejak Pope Pius IX di 1846, Yohanes Paulus II memasuki kepausan sebagai sehat, pria yang relatif muda hiked, swam dan pergi ski. However, after over twenty-five years on the papal throne, the 1981 assassination attempt, and a number of cancer scares, John Paul’s physical health declined. Namun, setelah lebih dari dua puluh lima tahun pada takhta paus, maka upaya pembunuhan 1981, dan sejumlah kanker scares, John Paul kesehatan fisik ditolak. He had a tumour removed from his colon in 1992, dislocated his shoulder in 1993, broke his femur in 1994, and had his appendix removed in 1996. Dia memiliki tumor dibuang dari usus besar pada 1992, ia Tulang bahu di tahun 1993, broke his tulang paha pada tahun 1994, dan telah ia Lampiran dihapus pada tahun 1996.

An orthopaedic surgeon confirmed in 2001 that Pope John Paul II was suffering from Parkinson’s disease , as international observers had suspected for some time; this was acknowledged publicly by the Vatican in 2003. Seorang ahli bedah pembedahan tulang yang dikonfirmasi pada tahun 2001 Pope John Paul II yang menderita penyakit Parkinson’s, sebagai pengamat internasional yang dicurigai untuk beberapa waktu; publik ini telah diakui oleh Vatikan pada tahun 2003. He had difficulty speaking more than a few sentences at a time, as well as trouble hearing. Dia mengalami kesulitan berbicara lebih dari beberapa kalimat sekaligus, serta masalah pendengaran. He also developed severe arthritis in his right knee following a hip replacement, and therefore rarely walked in public. Dia juga mengembangkan parah arthritis di lutut kanan mengikuti hip penggantian, dan karena itu jarang sekali berjalan di depan umum. Nevertheless, he continued to tour the world. Namun demikian, lanjut dia wisata ke seluruh dunia. Those who met him late in his life said that although physically he was in poor shape, mentally he remained fully alert. Orang-orang yang bertemu dengan dia di akhir hidupnya mengatakan bahwa meskipun secara fisik dia dalam bentuk miskin, mental ia tetap waspada penuh.

Towards the end of his Papacy, there were those both within and outside the church who thought that the Pope should resign or retire. Menjelang akhir kepausan itu, terdapat orang-orang baik di dalam dan di luar gereja yang beranggapan bahwa Paus harus mengundurkan diri atau pensiun. Even term limits for Popes were suggested. Bahkan istilah batas untuk Popes telah diusulkan. However, as John Paul had indicated his acceptance of God’s will that he should be Pope, he was determined to stay in office until his death, although his private papers show that he gave resignation serious consideration in 2002. Namun, seperti John Paul telah ditunjukkan kepada penerimaan Allah akan bahwa ia harus Paus, ia bertekad untuk tinggal di kantor sampai kematiannya, walaupun dia swasta menunjukkan bahwa karya beliau memberi pertimbangan serius diri pada tahun 2002.

On 1 February 2005 , the Pope was taken to the Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic in Rome suffering from acute inflammation of the larynx and laryngo-spasm , brought on by a bout of influenza . Pada tanggal 1 Februari 2005, yang diambil Paus ke Universitas Poliklinik Agostino Gemelli di Roma menderita radang akut pada pangkal tenggorokan dan laryngo-kekejangan, dibawa oleh seorang bout of influenza. The Vatican reported the following day that his condition had stabilised, but he would remain in the hospital until fully recovered. Vatikan yang dilaporkan keesokan harinya bahwa kondisi yang stabil, namun ia akan tetap berada di rumah sakit sampai sembuh sepenuhnya. The pope appeared in public on 6 February to deliver the final lines of the Angelus blessing in a hoarse voice from the window of his hospital room. Paus yang muncul di publik pada 6 Februari untuk memberikan akhir baris yang Angelus berkat dalam suara parau dari jendela kamar rumah sakit itu. He missed the Ash Wednesday ceremonies in St Peter’s on 9 February for the first time in his 26-year papacy, and returned to the Vatican on 10 February . [ 20 ] Dia ketinggalan Ash Rabu upacara di St Peter’s pada 9 Februari untuk pertama kalinya dalam 26 tahun kepausan, dan kembali ke Vatikan pada 10 Februari. [20]

On 24 February 2005 the Pope began having trouble breathing and also had a fever, and he was rushed back to the Gemelli Hospital, where a tracheotomy was successfully performed. Pada tanggal 24 Februari 2005 yang dimulai Paus mengalami kesulitan bernapas dan juga sempat demam, dan dia rushed kembali ke Rumah Sakit Gemelli, di mana tracheotomy berhasil dilakukan. An aide to Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi said that John Paul was “serene” after waking up following the surgery. [ 21 ] He raised his hand and attempted to say something, but his doctors advised him not to try speaking. An aide ke Italia Perdana Menteri Silvio Berlusconi mengatakan bahwa John Paul adalah “terang” setelah tetap mengikuti bedah. [21] Dia dibangkitkan tangannya dan berusaha untuk mengatakan sesuatu, tapi dokter itu dia tidak disarankan untuk mencoba berbicara. The Pope gave ‘silent blessings’ from his hospital window on Sunday 27 February and Sunday 6 March , and is said to have spoken in German and Italian during a working meeting with Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI ) in his 10th floor suite of the Gemelli on Tuesday 1 March . Paus yang memberi ‘berkah diam’ dari jendela rumah sakit pada hari Minggu 27 Februari dan Minggu 6 Maret, dan dikatakan telah digunakan di Jerman dan Italia saat rapat kerja dengan Cardinal Ratzinger (yang kemudian Pope Benedict XVI) di lantai 10. Suite dari Gemelli pada Selasa 1 Maret. Cardinal Ratzinger told international press: “the Pope spoke to me in German and Italian. He was completely lucid. I brought the Holy Father greetings from the plenary of the Congregation for the divine cult, which is meeting at this moment in the Vatican. The Holy Father will be working on material, which I gave him today. I am happy to see him fully lucid and mentally capable of saying the essential matters with his own voice. We usually speak in German. The details are unimportant–he spoke of essential matters.” Cardinal Ratzinger internasional kepada pers: “Paus yang berbicara kepada saya di Jerman dan Italia. Ia benar-benar jelas. Saya membawa Bapa Suci haiyaa dari pleno dari Kongregasi untuk pemujaan ilahi, yang merupakan pertemuan saat ini di Vatikan. The Bapa Suci akan bekerja pada materi yang saya berikan kepadanya hari ini. Saya senang melihat dia benar-benar jelas dan mental mampu berkata hal-hal yang penting dengan suara sendiri. Kami biasanya berbicara dalam bahasa Jerman. Rincian yang tidak penting – ia berbicara tentang hal-hal yang penting. ”

During the Angelus of Sunday 13 March The Pope was able to speak to pilgrims for the first time since he was readmitted to hospital. Selama Angelus Ahad 13 Maret Paus yang mampu berbicara dengan peziarah untuk pertama kalinya sejak dia readmitted ke rumah sakit. Later that day he returned to the Vatican for the first time in nearly a month. [ 22 ] On Palm Sunday ( 20 March ) the Pope made a brief appearance at his window to greet pilgrims. Kemudian pada hari itu dia kembali ke Vatikan untuk pertama kalinya dalam hampir satu bulan. [22] Pada Palm Minggu (20 Maret) yang dibuat Paus singkat tampilan di jendela untuk menyapa peziarah. He was cheered by thousands of the faithful as he silently waved an olive branch. Dia cheered oleh ribuan orang yang setia karena ia diam-diam keriting sebuah cabang zaitun. It was the first time in his pontificate that he could not officiate at Palm Sunday Mass. Itu adalah pertama kalinya dalam pontificate bahwa ia tidak dapat memimpin di Palm Minggu Mass. He watched it on his TV in his apartment overlooking St Peter’s Square . Dia watched it pada TV di apartemen overlooking St Peter’s Square.

On 22 March , there were renewed concerns for the Pope’s health after reports stated that he had taken a turn for the worse and was not responding to medication. [ 23 ] On 24 March , Colombian Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo performed the rite of the washing of the feet, in the Vatican’s St Peter’s Basilica. Pada tanggal 22 Maret, ada kekhawatiran diperpanjang untuk kesehatan Paus setelah laporan menyatakan bahwa dia telah mengambil gilirannya untuk parah dan tidak menanggapi obat-obatan. [23] Pada tanggal 24 Maret, Kolombia Cardinal Alfonso Lopez Trujillo melaksanakan ritual yang mencuci dari kaki, di Vatikan’s St Peter’s Basilica. The cardinal stood in for Pope John Paul II at a Holy Thursday ceremony at the Vatican. Kardinal yang berdiri di untuk Pope John Paul II di Kudus Kamis upacara di Vatikan. He said the ailing Pontiff was ‘serenely abandoning’ himself to God’s will. Dia mengatakan ailing paus adalah ‘jernih meninggalkan’ diri ke kehendak Tuhan. The Pope, whose health was precarious following the throat surgery in February, watched the service on television from his Vatican apartments. The Pope, yang kesehatan itu sulit mengikuti tenggorokan operasi pada bulan Februari, menonton layanan televisi dari Vatikan apartemen. On 27 March , Easter day, the Pope appeared at his window in the Vatican for a short time. Angelo Sodano read the Urbi et Orbi message while the Pope blessed the people with his own hand. Pada tanggal 27 Maret, Paskah hari, Paus muncul di jendela di Vatikan dalam jangka waktu singkat. Angelo Sodano membaca pesan Urbi et Orbi sementara Paus diberkati orang-orang dengan tangannya sendiri. He tried to speak but he could not. Ia mencoba untuk berbicara tetapi ia tidak dapat. By the end of the month, speculation was growing, and was finally confirmed by the Vatican officials, that he was nearing death. Pada akhir bulan, spekulasi yang berkembang, dan akhirnya dikonfirmasi oleh para pejabat Vatikan, bahwa dia hampir mati.

[ edit ] Death [Sunting] Kematian
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On 31 March 2005 the Pope developed a “very high fever caused by a urinary tract infection”, [ 24 ] but was not taken to the hospital, apparently in accordance with his wishes to die in the Vatican. Pada tanggal 31 Maret 2005 yang dikembangkan Paus yang “sangat tinggi demam disebabkan oleh infeksi urinary tract”, [24] tetapi itu tidak dibawa ke rumah sakit, ternyata sesuai dengan keinginan untuk mati di Vatikan. Later that day, Vatican sources announced that John Paul II had been given the Anointing of the Sick (informally known as Last Rites) of the Roman Catholic Church, the first time that the pontiff had received the sacrament since the 1981 assassination attempt on his life. Kemudian pada hari itu, sumber-sumber Vatikan mengumumkan bahwa Yohanes Paulus II telah diberikan Anointing of the Sick (informal dikenal sebagai Terakhir rites) dari Gereja Katolik Roma, pertama kalinya bahwa paus telah menerima sakramen sejak 1981 usaha pembunuhan di hidupnya . It is unclear if he received the Apostolic Pardon as well. [ 25 ] Tidak jelas apakah ia menerima Apostolic Pardon juga. [25]

On 1 April , his condition worsened drastically, with his heart and kidneys rapidly failing. Pada tanggal 1 April, maka kondisi memburuk secara drastis, dengan jantung dan gagal ginjal pesat. The Pope had been fitted with a second feeding tube in his nose to help boost his nutritional intake as a result of his fever. Paus yang telah dipasang dengan kedua feeding tube di hidung untuk membantu meningkatkan nya asupan gizi sebagai akibat dari demam itu. Reports from the Vatican early that morning reported that the Pope had suffered a heart attack, but remained awake. [ 26 ] Vatican spokesman Joaquin Navarro Valls denied the reports of the heart attack, but said the Pope had suffered a “cardio-circulatory collapse” and called the Pope’s condition “very serious”. [ 27 ] Laporan dari Vatikan awal pagi yang melaporkan bahwa Paus telah menderita serangan jantung, namun tetap terjaga. [26] juru bicara Vatikan Joaquin Navarro Valls menyangkal laporan dari serangan jantung, tetapi mengatakan bahwa Paus telah menderita “cardio-gagalnya peredaran darah” dan disebut kondisi Paus “sangat serius”. [27]

Several Italian media agencies reported the Pope’s death at 20:20 CEST (18:20 UTC), but soon afterwards, the Vatican denied that the Pope was dead, and stories changed. Beberapa media Italia melaporkan badan Paus kematian di 20:20 CEST (18:20 UTC), tetapi segera setelah itu, yang menyangkal bahwa Vatikan Paus telah mati, dan cerita berubah. TV Sky Italia reported that his heart and brain were functioning. TV Sky Italia melaporkan bahwa hati dan otak yang berfungsi.

At around 00:37 CEST on 2 April (22:37 1 April UTC ), a Vatican spokesman gave a further briefing on the Pope’s health and confirmed that the Pope had had the Last Rites . Pada sekitar 00:37 CEST pada 2 April (22:37 1 April UTC), seorang juru bicara Vatikan memberikan pengarahan lebih lanjut tentang Paus kesehatan dan mengkonfirmasikan bahwa Paus telah memiliki Terakhir rites. He refused to be taken to the hospital, and met with his closest associates, among them Cardinal Ratzinger, who said, “he knows that he is dying and he gave me his last goodbye.” Dia menolak untuk dibawa ke rumah sakit, dan bertemu dengan asosiasi yang paling dekat, di antara mereka Cardinal Ratzinger, yang mengatakan, “dia tahu bahwa dia mati dan dia berikan kepada saya sampai terakhir.” The Pope also requested that he be read the meditations said on the Stations of the Cross a few days before. Paus yang juga meminta agar ia dapat membaca kata meditations di Stasiun Salib beberapa hari sebelumnya.

His final hours were marked by an overwhelming number of younger people who kept vigil outside his Vatican apartments. Akhir nya hari itu ditandai dengan jumlah yang besar orang-orang muda yang dipelihara penjagaan di luar itu Vatikan apartemen. In his last message, specifically to the youth of the world, he said: “I have looked for you. Now you have come to me. And I thank you.” Dalam pesan terakhir, khusus untuk para pemuda di dunia, ia berkata: “Saya melihat ada untuk Anda. Sekarang Anda telah datang ke saya. Dan saya terima kasih.”

Early in the evening, the Vatican announced that his condition “remains very serious. In late morning, the high fever developed.” Dini di malam hari, di Vatikan mengumumkan bahwa kondisi “masih sangat serius. Pada akhir pagi, demam tinggi yang dikembangkan.” However, “when addressed by members of his household, he responds correctly.” Namun, “ketika dialamatkan oleh anggota keluarganya, ia merespon dengan benar.”

At approximately 19:00 CEST (17:00 UTC), Italian news sources claimed that Pope John Paul II had lost consciousness. Pada sekitar 19:00 CEST (17:00 UTC), Italia berita sumber menyatakan bahwa Pope John Paul II telah kehilangan kesadaran. At least one medical centre stated that there was no more hope for him. Setidaknya satu pusat medis dinyatakan bahwa tidak ada lagi harapan untuk dia. The Vatican published a press release refuting the claim but conceding the Pope’s kidneys had stopped functioning. Vatikan yang menerbitkan press release refuting klaim yang conceding tetapi Paus ginjal berhenti berfungsi. The ANSA news agency reported around half an hour later that he lost consciousness. The ANSA melaporkan berita sekitar setengah jam kemudian, ia kehilangan kesadaran.

According to Father Jarek Cielecki, the Pope’s last word before death was “Amen”; then he closed his eyes. [ 28 ] In his private apartments, at 21:37 CEST (19:37 UTC) on 2 April , Pope John Paul II died, 46 days short of his 85th birthday. His death certificate listed septic shock and heart failure as primary causes of death. [ 29 ] [ 30 ] Menurut Jarek Cielecki Bapa, yang terakhir kata Paus sebelum kematian adalah “Amin”, kemudian dia menutup kedua matanya. [28] Dalam apartemen pribadi, at 21:37 CEST (UTC 19:37) pada tanggal 2 April, Pope John Paul II meninggal, 46 hari 85. kekurangan his birthday. sertifikat kematian-Nya yang tercantum septic shock dan kegagalan jantung sebagai penyebab utama kematian. [29] [30]

Present at the moment of death were his two personal secretaries, Archbishop Stanisław Dziwisz and Mieczysław Mokrzycki, Marian Jaworski , Archbishop Stanisław Ryłko and Father Tadeusz Styczeń. Hadir pada saat kematian adalah dua pribadi Sekretaris, Archbishop Stanislaw Dziwisz dan Mieczysław Mokrzycki, Marian Jaworski, Archbishop Stanislaw Ryłko dan Bapa Tadeusz Styczeń. The pope was assisted by his personal physician Dr. Renato Buzzonetti, with two doctors, Dr. Alessandro Barelli and Dr. Ciro D’Allo and their respective nurses who had been on call if needed. Paus yang telah dibantu oleh para dokter pribadi Dr Renato Buzzonetti, dengan dua dokter, Dr Alessandro Barelli dan Dr Ciro D’Allo dan perawat masing-masing yang telah di panggil jika diperlukan. Also three nuns who were handmaidens of the Sacred Heart of Jesus , helped him in his final hours. Juga tiga biarawati yang handmaidens dari Hati Kudus Yesus, dia membantu di akhir bulan.

Immediately afterwards Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano arrived, as did the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, Eduardo Martínez Somalo , Archbishop Leonardo Sandri , substitute of the Secretariat of State , and Archbishop Paolo Sardi, vice-Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Segera setelah itu Sekretaris Negara Cardinal Angelo Sodano tiba, seperti melakukan Camerlengo dari Gereja Roma Kudus, Eduardo Martínez Somalo, Archbishop Leonardo Sandri, pengganti dari Sekretariat Negara, dan Archbishop Paolo Sardi, wakil dari Camerlengo Suci Gereja Roma. Thereafter, Cardinal Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Jozef Tomko were able to enter the apartments. Setelah itu, Cardinal Ratzinger, dekan dari College of Cardinals, dan Józef Tomko mampu memasuki apartemen.

[ edit ] World reactions [Sunting] Dunia reaksi
A crowd of over 2 million within Vatican City, over one billion Catholics worldwide, and many non-Catholics mourned John Paul II. J keramaian lebih dari 2 juta di Kota Vatikan, lebih dari satu miliar Katolik di seluruh dunia, dan banyak non-Katolik berkabung John Paul II. The pope always said that his death should be celebrated as the passage to the next stage of his eternal life . Paus yang selalu mengatakan bahwa kematiannya harus dirayakan sebagai petikan ke tahap berikutnya kepada hidup kekal. The crowd in the Vatican clapped when the announcement of his death was made, following a traditional Italian custom signifying respect. Yang ramai di Vatikan clapped ketika pengumuman dari kematiannya dibuat, berikut tradisional Italia kustom signifying hormati.

Crosses built up by lighted windows at students’ residence in Kraków , Poland Crosses dibangun oleh berlampu jendela pada siswa tinggal di Krakow, Polandia

Oratory Church of St Aloysius Gonzaga, Oxford , with the flag of the Vatican City flying at half-staff the day after the death of Pope John Paul II. Ruang sembahyang Gereja St Aloysius Gonzaga, Oxford, dengan bendera di Kota Vatikan berada di staf setengah hari setelah kematian Pope John Paul II. In Poland, Catholics gathered at the church at Wadowice , the birthplace of the pontiff. Dalam Polandia, Katolik berkumpul di gereja di Wadowice, tanah kelahiran dari uskup. State television cancelled all comedy-related shows beginning April 1 , 2005 , and began showing mass. Negara komedi televisi dibatalkan semua yang berhubungan dengan menunjukkan awal April 1, 2005, dan mulai menunjukkan massa. The Poles, who had a deep sense of devotion towards the pontiff and referred to him as their “father,” were particularly devastated by his death. The Poles, yang memiliki kedalaman rasa kecintaan terhadap uskup dan dia disebut sebagai “ayah,” terutama yang hancur oleh kematiannya. The government declared six days of mourning for him. Pemerintah dinyatakan enam hari perkabungan baginya.

Many world leaders expressed their condolences and ordered flags in their countries lowered to half-staff: Banyak para pemimpin dunia menyatakan condolences dan memerintahkan flag di negara mereka untuk menurunkan setengah staf

In Argentina students observed a moment of silence before each class on the first school day after the Pope’s death. President of Argentina Nestor Kirchner stated that “We’re millions that are crying about John Paul II; his teaching is going to follow us all our life, permanently.” Dalam Argentina siswa diamati sebentar dari keheningan sebelum setiap kelas pada hari pertama sekolah setelah kematian Paus. Presiden Argentina Néstor Kirchner menyatakan bahwa “Kami jutaan yang menangis tentang Yohanes Paulus II, ia akan mengajar kita untuk mengikuti semua hidup, secara permanen. ”
Australian Prime Minister John Howard said Pope John Paul should be remembered as a freedom fighter against communism, and a great Christian leader. [ 31 ] Australia Perdana Menteri John Howard mengatakan Paus John Paul harus diingat sebagai pejuang kemerdekaan melawan komunisme, dan pemimpin yang besar Kristen. [31]
In Brazil , the country with the world’s largest Catholic population, President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva , expressed the sorrow of the Brazilian people. [3] The government declared a 7-day official mourning period. [4] . Di Indonesia, negara yang terbesar di dunia Katolik populasi, Presiden Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, menyatakan kesedihan dari orang-orang Brasil. [3] Pemerintah dinyatakan 7 hari masa berkabung resmi. [4]. On the eve of the Pope’s death, the Brazilian Senate interrupted its session and the senators recited in chorus the Lord’s prayer for the Pope’s recovery. Pada malam dari kematian Paus, Brasil Senat nya terputus sesi Senator Al Qur’an dan bersama dengan Tuhan dari doa untuk Paus pemulihan. After the death of the Pope, the Senate observed one minute of silence. Setelah kematian yang Paus, Senat diamati satu menit dari kesunyian.
Prime Minister of Canada Paul Martin said, “For a quarter century, Pope John Paul II served as a symbol of love and faith, peace and compassion…. Our grief today is the grief of the world.” [5] On 4 April , Martin and other Canadian leaders paid tribute to the pope in the House of Commons . [6] Flags were lowered to half-staff throughout the country and at several diplomatic missions; they remained there through the day of the funeral. [7] The province of Manitoba opened a book of condolences for citizens to sign. [8] Perdana Menteri Kanada Paul Martin berkata, “Untuk seperempat abad, Pope John Paul II menjabat sebagai simbol iman dan kasih, perdamaian dan belas kasihan …. kami duka ini adalah duka dunia.” [5] Pada tanggal 4 April, Martin dan Kanada pemimpin dibayar penghargaan kepada paus di House of Commons. [6] Flags adalah untuk menurunkan setengah staf di seluruh negara dan di beberapa misi diplomatik, mereka tetap ada melalui hari dalam pemakaman. [7] Provinsi Manitoba membuka buku condolences bagi warga negara untuk ditandatangani. [8]
In Chile , the government declared a 3-day official mourning period. Di Chili, pemerintah dinyatakan 3 hari masa berkabung resmi. President Ricardo Lagos noted that “…John Paul II won’t stay away from us. His name became part of our history, his thoughts will be an always present inspiration to build a more fair country and a more peaceful world for all of us.” [ 32 ] Presiden Ricardo Lagos dicatat bahwa “… Yohanes Paulus II tidak akan tinggal jauh dari kita. Namanya menjadi bagian dari sejarah, maka pikiran akan menjadi inspirasi selalu hadir untuk membangun negara yang lebih adil dan dunia yang lebih damai untuk semua kami. “[32]
Colombian president Álvaro Uribe Vélez decreed that flags on government buildings and embassies would be lowered to half-staff for two days. Kolumbia presiden Álvaro Uribe Vélez menetapkan bahwa bendera di gedung-gedung pemerintah dan kedutaan besar akan menurunkan petugas ke setengah selama dua hari. The president ‘s statement emphasised the late pope’s struggle for world peace. [ 33 ] Yang presiden ‘s pernyataan paus menekankan akhir dari perjuangan untuk perdamaian dunia. [33]
Cuban authorities allowed Cardinal Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino to make a rare statement on state television: “This is a man who has carried the moral weight of the world for 26 years… turning himself into the only moral reference for humanity in recent years of wars and difficulties.” Cuban otoritas diizinkan Cardinal Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino langka untuk membuat pernyataan di televisi negara: “Ini adalah seorang laki-laki yang telah membawa moral berat dunia 26 tahun … untuk beralih ke dalam dirinya hanya moral referensi bagi manusia dalam beberapa tahun terakhir dari perang dan kesulitan. ” Cuban Government declared three days of mourning. Pemerintah Kuba menyatakan tiga hari berkabung.
Indian Prime Minister Dr. Perdana Menteri India Dr Manmohan Singh paid tribute in the book of condolences at the Vatican Embassy in New Delhi. [9] The Indian Government declared three days of mourning. Manmohan Singh dibayar penghargaan dalam kitab condolences di Kedubes Vatikan di New Delhi. [9] The Indian Pemerintah menyatakan tiga hari berkabung.
In the United Kingdom , Queen Elizabeth II expressed her “deep sorrow” at the death of Pope John Paul II and remembered his efforts at promoting peace throughout the world. Prime Minister Tony Blair said that the world has lost a religious leader who was “revered across people of all faiths and none.” [10] Di Kerajaan Inggris, Ratu Elizabeth II menyatakan dia “kesedihan mendalam” di kematian Pope John Paul II dan diingat usahanya mempromosikan perdamaian di seluruh dunia. Perdana Menteri Tony Blair mengatakan bahwa dunia telah kehilangan seorang pemimpin agama yang “revered across people of all faiths and none.” [10]
Flags over the White House and other public buildings in the United States were ordered lowered to half-staff until sundown on the day of John Paul II’s interment. [11] President George W. Bush expressed his regret at the loss of a “champion of human freedom,” an “inspiration to millions of Americans” and a “hero for the ages” [12] and became the first sitting US President to attend a papal funeral. His father and his predecessor ( George HW Bush and Bill Clinton ) accompanied him to the funeral, while his brother, Florida Governor Jeb Bush , attended the installation of the new pope .
Numerous countries with a Catholic majority declared mourning for John Paul II. The government of the Philippines declared mourning until the day of the funeral. Gabon and Paraguay declared five days of mourning, Costa Rica four. Three days of mourning were declared by the governments of Italy , Portugal (the days preceding the funeral, although national flags in public buildings were lowered on the first Monday after the Pope’s death), Bolivia , Cape Verde , Croatia , East Timor , Haiti , Malawi and the Seychelles . Peru and Spain declared one day of mourning.

Egypt and Lebanon were also among the countries without a Catholic majority that declared three days mourning for the Pope. Kosovo declared two days mourning, and Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina declared one day. In the Republic of Macedonia , all cultural events were cancelled on the day following the Pope’s death.

France and Germany ordered flags to be lowered to half-staff.

In marked contrast to other large Catholic countries, Ireland ‘s Taoiseach Bertie Ahern declared that there would be no “national day of mourning as such.” This has proved controversial with a sizeable portion of the Irish population. Commentators have stated that the Irish reaction is somewhat muted and could be indicative of the Irish society and politics moving decisively away from the high esteem in which it previously held the Church.

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